Power system

Interruptions at connection points due to grid disturbances

Finlands electricity consumption rose 3.2 (-1.1) per cent on the previous year and totalled 85.1 (82.5) terawatt hours in 2016. Fingrid transmitted a total of 68.5 (67.9) TWh of electricity in its grid, representing 77.3 (77.2) per cent of the transmission volume in Finland (consumption and inter-TSO).
 
The electricity import and production capacity was sufficient to cover the peak consumption during the year. According to our measurements, electricity consumption peaked at 15,100 (13,500) megawatts on 7 January 2016 between 5 and 6 p.m. During that peak consumption hour, Finland generated 10,800 megawatts of electricity and the remaining 4,300 megawatts was imported from neighbouring countries. In peak consumption situations, Finland was dependent on electricity imports. During the peak consumption period, electricity was imported from Sweden (2,414 MW) and Russia (1,468 MW) using nearly full transmission capacity. At the same time, electricity was also imported from Estonia (435 MW) to Finland. Domestic combined heat and power plants and hydro power plants still had available capacity during the periods of peak consumption. The availability of electricity in Finland was thus not in danger even during peak consumption periods and the power system functioned reliably also during the peak. Peak-load capacity was not used during the period of peak consumption.
 
Electricity transmissions between Finland and Sweden consisted mostly of large imports to Finland during the year under review. In the early part of the year, the electricity transmission between Finland and Estonia was dominated by exports from Finland to Estonia, and towards the end of the year, by imports from Estonia to Finland. Electricity imports from Russia to Finland grew slightly compared to the previous year. There are major intraday variations in import volumes, however. The maximum transmission capacity was available almost throughout the year, with the exception of the annual maintenance work carried out at the Vyborg DC station and on the Russian grid.
 
The planned maintenance shut-downs of transmission connections between Estonia, Sweden and Russia were on a normal level in 2016. Transmission capacity between Sweden and Finland was partly limited due to, among other things, the construction of a new 400 kilovolt power line and substations in northern Finland.
 
Countertrade 1-12/16 1-12/15 10-12/16 10-12/15
Countertrade between Finland and Sweden, €M 2.5 0.8 0.3 0.2
Countertrade between Finland and Estonia, €M 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.0
Countertrade between Finlands internal connections, €M 1.2 2.2 0.3 0.6
Total countertrade, €M
 
3.9
 
3.8
 

0.6

0.9
 

Our mission is to supply the electricity generated by power plants that are connected to the grid to our customers reliably and in a state of high quality. We continuously monitor the reliability of electricity transmission. As in the previous year, our transmission reliability rate remained at an excellent level during the year under review and was 99.999 (99.999) per cent. The importance of our electricity transmission reliability is illustrated by the fact that the cost of a nationwide major disturbance to customers and society at large would be in the region of EUR 100 million for each hour of outage.

During summer, the number of disturbances due to thunder exceeded the average, and the resulting multi-phase disturbances caused harm to the process industry. Otherwise the number of disturbances remained at the normal level. We allocated increased resources to determining the DC transmission links susceptibility to disturbances. DC transmission link failures declined slightly, and the time required for investigating the disturbances was substantially shortened. We raised the grids disturbance-clearing readiness a total of three times in 2016, mainly due to the prolonged cold period in January.

Countertrade costs totalled EUR 3.9 (3.8) million. Countertrade refers to special adjustments made to manage electricity transmission which are used to eliminate short-term bottlenecks i.e. areas where electricity transmission is congested from the grid. Fingrid guarantees the cross-border transmission it has confirmed by carrying out countertrades, i.e. purchasing and selling electricity, up until the end of the 24-hour usage period. The need for countertrade can arise from, for example, a power outage or disruption in a power plant or in the grid.

An outage in a connection point in the grid caused by a disturbance in Fingrids electricity network lasted an average of 1.4 (2.1) minutes, which is clearly shorter than the ten-year average. The estimated cost of the disturbances was EUR 3.1 (3.5) million.

Transmission outages in connection with investment projects mostly affected Ostrobothnia and northern Ostrobothnia. The outages were challenging and required careful advance planning and good cooperation with our customers. The outages were handled successfully.

Reserves required to maintain the power balance of the power system were procured from Finland, the other Nordic countries, Estonia and Russia. More reserves were sold to Sweden than in the previous years. The availability of reserves was mostly good, but challenging situations arose, for example, during floods, when hydro power plants could not be utilised as they normally can. The costs of reserves remained clearly below the budgeted level. New operators have entered the reserve procurement scene, and consumer participation in the reserve market has increased. Nordic grid companies continued using the automatic frequency control reserve to restore the deteriorated frequency quality. A maximum reserve of 300 megawatts, of which Fingrids share was up to 70 megawatts, was maintained for the selected hours.

The volume of transmission losses in the Finnish grid decreased from the previous year and was 1.3 (1.4) terawatt hours. This is 1.5 (1.6) per cent of the total volume of transmitted electricity. The decrease is attributable to declined electricity imports from Sweden compared to the previous year, and lower ITC volumes. The annual variation of losses is affected by the Nordic electricity production situation, such as sufficiency of hydropower.
 

Centralised electricity system                                                

 Decentralised electricity system

 

 

Power system operation 2016   2015   2014  
Electricity consumption in Finland, TWh 85.1 82.5 83.4
Fingrids transmission volume, TWh 68.6 67.9 67.1
Fingrid's loss power volume, TWh, G4-EU12 1.3 1.4 1.3
Electricity transmission Finland–Sweden      
exports to Sweden, TWh 0.3 0.2 0.15
tImports from Sweden, TWh 15.7 17.8 18.1
Electricity transmission Finland–Estonia      
exports to Estonia, TWh 3.1 5 3.6
imports from Sweden, TWh 0.7 0.05 0.05
Electricity transmission Finland–Russia                
imports from Russia 5.9 3.9 3.4

Key events of 2016

The balancing power price rose momentarily to a high level early in the year

Power and District Heat Pool turned 60

Nordic Regional Security Coordinator (RSC) set up in Copenhagen

We released the new Fingrid Online mobile app